HeleneEutamene, FannyPlacide, ValerieTondereau, VassiliaTheodorou
BACKGROUND: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by visceral hypersensitivity and increased intestinal permeability. Stressful events can affect the onset and course of IBS. In rats, stress also induces visceral hypersensitivity and gut hyperpermeability. Mucoprotectant agents such as gelatin tannate and xyloglucan, have been shown to provide protection to the intestinal mucosa and to exert anti-diarrheal effects. On the other hand, prebiotics exert beneficial effect on the gut via a bifidogenic effect into the colon. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of an acute vs a chronic treatment of a compound containing mucoprotectants (xyloglycan (XYL), pea proteins and tannins from grape (PPT) and a prebiotic (xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on visceral hypersensitivity and gut hyperpermeability induced by an acute stress in rat.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar rats (200-250g) were orally treated by XYL+PPT+XOS (36.4, 91.2 and 76.8 mg/rat respectively) or by vehicle (NaCl 0.9%, 0.5 mL) 1 h or during 7 days before a partial restraint stress (PRS) session or not (basal conditions). In non-stressed animals or twenty min after PRS, visceral sensitivity in response to colorectal distension was assessed by electromyography and gut paracellular permeability to 51Cr-EDTA administered by gavage was evaluated in the 24 hours urines.
RESULTS: In non-stressed rats, acute or chronic treatment by XYL+PPT+XOS did not modify the number of abdominal contractions in response to all the distending volumes (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mL). In controls (NaCL 0.9%), after PRS, the number of abdominal contractions at 0.8 and 1.2 mL distending volumes significantly increased illustrating a visceral hypersensitivity. The chronic treatment by XYL+PPT+XOS significantly reduced stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Compared with non-stressed condition, stress significantly increased the total gut paracellular permeability (2.5±0.5 vs 0.9±0.3% of 51Cr-EDTA recovery). Chronic treatment with XYL+PPT+XOS significantly reduced the hyperpermeability induced by stress (1.3±0.4 vs 2.5±0.5% of 51Cr- EDTA recovery). In contrast, the acute treatment by XYL+PPT+XOS failed to prevent both stress-induced gut visceral hypersensitivity and hyperpermeability.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that only the chronic vs acute treatment with the combination of mucoprotectants and a prebiotic reduces gut barrier impairment and visceral hypersensitivity induced by stress. The beneficial effect of this combination results from the reinforcement of the intestinal barrier probably due to the film-forming properties of the mucoprotectants and the prebiotic interaction with the microbiota, both of these pathways attempting an optimal efficacy during the chronic treatment. This study provide preclinical rationale for the use of this combination in the management of IBS.
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